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The most common signs are the following:


Signs normally found in infants and children


  • Enlargement of the head
  • Irritability
  • Lethargic
  • Feeds poorly/Decrease in appetite
  • Recurrent vomiting
  • Prefers to be alone


  • Distended scalp veins
  • High-pitched cry
  • Increased muscle tone
  • Enlarged and bulging fontanel
  • "Sunset Eyes" (downward gaze)


Signs normally found in older children, teens, and adults


  • Increased intracranial pressure
  • Headache
  • Decrease in appetite
  • Lethargic
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Double vision
  • Deteriorating mental capabilities
  • Irritability
  • Restlessness
  • Personality changes
  • Incontinence
  • Difficulty in walking


  • Seizures

Please note that these are just the most common signs - and it doesn't mean that a patient who is suffering a malfunction will follow all these signs. And no two malfunctions are alike, although they may be similar.

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